Valley of the Shadow
The Eve of War
Fall 1859–Spring 1861

1860 Census and Summaries

1860 Real Estate and Personal Estate Valuation

Augusta County’s massive personal estate valuation represented holdings in human property—slaves. In the value of real and personal estate, Augusta County’s white residents held wealth on a per capita basis double that of the residents of Franklin County ($1112 per capita in Augusta to $633 in Franklin).

Augusta (in dollars) Franklin (in dollars)
Real Estate 13,850,766 20,079,556
Real per capita 499 (all) 476
Personal Estate 10,113,154 6,586,922
Personal per capita 364 (all) 156
Total Wealth 23,963,930 26,666,478
Total per capita 863 (all persons) 1,112 (for whites) 633

U.S. Census Office, Eighth Census [1860]. Population of the United States in 1860, Compiled from the Original Returns of the Eighth Census. Washington, D.C., 1864. U.S. Census of Population, 1860. Augusta County, Virginia and Franklin County, Pennsylvania. In U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860. Washington: National Archives and Records Administration (Augusta: Reels 1333 and 1387. Franklin: Reels 1111 and 1112).