Valley of the Shadow
The Eve of War
Fall 1859–Spring 1861

1860 Census and Summaries

Comparative Stores and Establishments Per Capita

This table shows a higher per capita development of rural commercial establishments, such as mills and mines, in Augusta and a higher per capita development of urban commercial establishments, such as stores and hotels, in Franklin.

Augusta Franklin
Population 27,749 42,126
Families 3,740 7,709
Average Family Size 5.82 5.49
Schools (public and private) 54 173
Persons per school 513 243
Churches 61 75
Persons per church 455 562
Towns 31 43
Persons per town 895 979
Commercial Establishments 289 856
Persons per commercial establishment 96 49
Mills and Mines 187 201
Persons per mill or mine 148 210
Blacksmiths 28 95
Persons per blacksmith 991 443
Tanyards 11 29
Persons per tanyard 2523 1453
Hotels and taverns 8 45
Persons per hotel or tavern 3469 936
Stores 21 202
Persons per store 1321 209
Miscellaneous 34 36
Persons per misc. 816 1170

The data are based on the GIS of Augusta and Franklin households—maps are derived from a D.H. Davison map of Franklin County, published in 1858, and Jedediah Hotchkiss map of Augusta County, published in 1870 and based on surveys completed “during the war.” The maps have been georeferenced at the Virginia Center for Digital History, using ESRI Arc Info to produce a Geographic Information Systems map and database of households based on U.S. census data from the population, agricultural, and slaveowners schedules.

Note: Augusta’s per capita figures use the entire population free and slave.