This map locates Franklin and Augusta counties within the Shenandoah Valley, 200 miles from one another. While similar in their geography and agriculture, the counties were separated by slavery.
This map set compares the elevations in both counties with residences included. In both places residents lived at all elevations, but settlement concentrated in the broad plains along rivers and streams.
This map set compares the rail and road development in both counties, showing a highly networked infrastructure in both places. Franklin’s greater density of major roads was offset by its truncated Cumberland Valley Railroad, which made Chambersburg its terminus in the late 1830s. Franklin’s railroad effectively ended at Chambersburg, since its southern extension was too old and light to handle significant traffic. Augusta’s line, The Virginia Central, by contrast, extended through the county south to Covington and there linked up with other roads connected to the South.
These maps compare the distribution of towns in Augusta and Franklin with a one-mile buffer around them. No resident of Augusta lived more than 5.5 miles from a town or village, and no Franklin resident lived more than 6 miles from a town or village.
This map set compares the soil types in both counties and includes residences. Residents of both counties concentrated settlement on the best soils in the broad middle plain.
Franklin’s crop mix was more diverse than Augusta's and more heavily concentrated on wheat. No precinct in Franklin County averaged as much corn in its crop mix as the precincts in Augusta with the least concentration of corn. In Franklin all precincts except Warren and Dry Run produced more wheat in their crop mix than even the even the most wheat intensive precincts in Augusta.
These maps show the distribution of farm values throughout Augusta and Franklin in 1860. While land values were higher in Franklin, farm values fluctuated throughout each county with no one area dominated by the wealthy or poor.
These maps compare 1860 presidential voting by precinct in Augusta and Franklin. Bell’s overwhelming victory in Augusta overshadows subtle electoral patterns in the Douglas-Breckinridge-Bell split. The Democratic candidates together captured significant votes in Staunton and in the eastern and northern parts of the county, the broad middle part of the Valley just east of Staunton. In Franklin, Lincoln’s support came from the broad middle of the county, centered in places with visible African American populations, such as Southampton, Montgomery, and the South Ward of Chambersburg.
This map set compares the churches and schools as central places in both counties with one-mile buffers around these social institutions. Franklin’s greater density of schools and churches, especially along its perimeter, corresponded to its more dense population and its greater commitment to free public education.