Valley of the Shadow

About the Author

Michael Reid Hanger was born in Staunton, Virginia on May 10, 1840. He worked as a carpenter in Lexington, Virginia, in 1860, and enlisted there in the "Rockbridge Rifles" on April 18, 1861, in response to Governor John Letcher's call for volunteers to defend Virginia. During the war the Rifles became part of the 4th and 5th Virginia Infantry. In this diary Hanger describes in very detailed daily entries the movement of the Rifles in the Valley and in central Virginia.


the April 18 1861

We left Lexingtom at 1 oclock PM in stages [sic] - hacks - Waggons We got to Fairfield at sunset I took supper at Mr. McCormicks [4]went on to midway & there the whole Company got Supper at 9 PM Mr. Varner [5][,] Marston [6][,] Middleton [7] & myself eat at Mr Dr Hameltons [8] then we preseeded to Greensvill got there at 2 oclock AM.


the April 19

we got to Staunton this morning put up at the Va House got breakfast and Asbury McCluerer [9] & my self went to see some ladies came back at 10 oclock AM. Wm. Hartigan [10] Samuel Charlton [11] & my self went and taken dinner at Lieut Staffords [12] went back to the Hotel and in A few moments we started out was Escorted out of town with the band of musick & we all got aboard of stages hacks and prseeded to Mt Sidney got there at dark. Sargent Campbell [13] John Middleton Marston Reilly [14] & John Edmondson [15] & my self stayed at Mr. ______es the rest stayed in different places.


the April 20th

We left Mt Sidney this morning for Harrisonburg had quite a nice time of it all day got to Mount Crawford at 12 AM the Rockbridge Cavalry[16] was there I saw my Brother John [17] & many others that I knew--we went on got to Harrisonburg at 4pm marched into the Court House & then we devided our for different places for to stay all night Mr. Varner Bailey [18] Burtons [19] & my self went to Mr Effingers [20] A wealthey merchant and was treated verry kindley after supper Mr. Reilly & myself went to call upon some ladies we got Acquainted with two Misses Vanpelts [21] and Misses Smith [22] Mr. Fonshill [23] came in and we had A good time generally.


April the 21st

Beautifull morning this Mr. Fonshill Reilly & myself went to take leave of our lady Acquaintences they were so verry Agreeable that I hated verry much to part with them though we bid them Adieu and took the coach for Mt Jackson [24]

had a pleasant time all day Reached Mt Jackson at sun set Mr. Tanquary [25] had made arrangements for our staying all night. We stayed in the ________ [Mr. Farrah's and Mr. Walters] Hotels and had verry good entertainment


April 22nd

At 8 o'clock this morning we took the Cars, and came on to Strasburg for [from] here we walked to Winchester, a distance of 18 miles. We here stoped at the Taylor House, and staid all night and in morning took the Harpers Ferry and Winchester R.R.. Passed by edge of Charlstown [sic], and came on to the Ferry. We quartered in the Armory, amongst machinery. We remained here for a week or so, and then went on the Maryland Heights, and staid 1 day and a night, and got a pretty good ducking. We then came back to the Armory, staid there about 1 week, and then moved to Bolivar. staid there week or so, and then went to Va Heights, we here knocked up some old shandies and went to cutting down trees and cleaning up generally. burning brush &c. We cleared off about 30 acres of land and built one Block house. We were in one of the greatest Hail storms I ever saw. The stones were as large as partridge eggs the ground was covered, an inch deep. it cut our shanties down and left us in the storm. We staid here 10 days and then came back to Bolivar. The next place we went to was Martinsburg on the B. & O. R.R. We had a glorious time here, though it was a great Union place. the ladies sent us everything we could wish, and presented us with thousands of Bouquets. We spent a very happy time here certain. We were here about 1 week and started back to Ferry, and burned a bridge (Opequon) on the B. & O. R>R> about 2 1/2 miles from Martinsburg. We came back to Bolivar, but didn't tarry long. We were in Martinsburg during election. We were quartered in Grantham Hall). We again started and went to Shepherds-town, from there to the Neck or (Shepherd's Bend,) about 5 miles from the town. We saw some of the enemy, with red caps and blue uniform. I shot at one of them, and all say I certainly killed him. We were quartered in an old barn all night. The next day we moved back about 1 mile to Mr. Chapman's house. I was then ordered to go on Picquet. to Dam No. 4. We soon got orders to move. We all came back to Shepherd's town joined the Regt. [5th Va. Infantry] and that night. came to Charlestown. about 11 o'clock that night, and camped in the Fairgrounds. Early the next morning we started to Wonchester, and got there about 9 o'clock at night and camped in the Fairgrounds. the 2nd day we were ordered to march to Martinsburg, but hearing of the enemy crossing the [Potomac] River, and overtaking Col. Johnston[26] with 6 or 8 Regts at Bunker's Hill. we halted and there formed 1 line of battle. As we heard nothing of the enemy, we returned together with the other Regts to Winchester. We here staid all night, and the next eveneing started again for Martinsburg. We traveled that evening 14 miles, and as the Companies were very much fatigued & c, we camped for the night at Bucklestown, alias, Darksville [Darkesville] 6 miles from Martinsburg. We camped all night out side the town a piece. In the morning came on through Martinsburg 4 miles below, on the road and here camped (Camp Stevens)[27]


Camp Stevens June 23rd Sunday 1861

Was to hear Rev Dr Pendleton [28] preach this morning at his quarters, in the evening heard Rev Mr Goul [29] preach at our quarters.


June 24th Monday

Still here at Camp 4 miles from town. We resumed Bat" [Battalion] and Co" [Company] Drills this morning.


June 25th Tuesday

Beautiful day. Our baggage was sent to us from Winchester.


June 26th Wednesday

Cloudy this morning, looks like rain. Jim Holley is talking of going home today. 5 o'clock, we had a considerable shower this evening, and the wind blew very hard.


June 27th Thursday

Fine morning. One of Kirkpatrick's [30] men was shot today, whilst on Pcquet guard at the river.


June 28th Friday

Had Battalion drill this morning as [usua[l] {corner torn} Fine pleasent day. Very warm.


June 29th Saturday

There were only 15 men out on drill this morning at 10. o'clock.


June 30th Sunday

No battalion drill this morning. Cloudy this morning, looks like rain. Cleaned our guns this morning for Inspection. 11 o'clock it is now raining right hard. We have to lay in our blanket rag houses. Pay roll was called this morning.


July 1st Monday

Still cloudy. and I think we will have more rain today. Messrs Laird [31] and Bougher [32] got Furloughs to go home to day until the 16th.


July 2nd Tuesday

Whilst eating our breakfast this morning we received orders, to pack up &c. and be ready to move in 10 minutes. The West Augusta Guards[33] were put in front, our Co. next, for skirmish. When we got about 2 miles from Camp, we were halted. The Augusta Guards went crossed the fence, and demployed along a fence running perpendicularly to the road. Our regimnet (the 5th). Then formed into Platoons, and from platoons into a square [picture of a square] in the road. The fire was opened by the Augusta guards, we (our Co) was then ordered to jump the fence and deploy a long with and in rear of W. A. G.'s. the remainder of the Regt. pressed on in the road and commenced firing. In deploying my three Companions were McCampbell [34], A. C. McClure, [35], and McCoun [36]. we all kept up a constant firing. In a short time the enemy began to give way, running &c. We were still firing into them, we advanced then fell back. We repulsed them 3 times, at last they rallied their forces, and commenced to advance we then gave way. Capt. Pendleton then opened of one of his 6 pound cannon on them, but they still continued to advance, the Artillery then also gave way, we retreated on back, to withn 3 miles of Martinsburg, we here took our respective positions again to meet them. but they didn't come on , and we got orders to move on again, So we came on to martinsburg. and camped for the night at the big Spring 2 1/2 miles from town. In our Co. only 2 were wounded. Mr McNamara [37], who was shot in left arm ball glanced and cut his breast considerably Mr. Arthur McCluer [38] got a slight wound on the head from a spent grape shot, it is just a mere sckrah [scratch]. In the W. A. G.s, Jack Doyle [39] received a slight wound from explosion of a shell. One of Capt. Doyl's [40] men was killed, and one Continental [41] under Capt. Avis [42] from Winchester. Balls flew in every direction, the shell passed over our heads, and fell about 50 paces in the rear and exploded, the balls were whiselling in the trees above us in a hurry It is thought that the enemy numbered about 10,000. against us of about 380 men. Col. Jackson [43] says, we did most capitally. Stewarts [44] Cavalry brought in 40 prisoners this morning to martinsburg. 9 more were brought in whilst at Big Spring. One was a Surgeon in Northern army, one Lieut, a cavalry man, and 6 others, privates. I suppose, we had the post of honor in the retreat (the rear).


July 3rd Wednesday

We camped here last night at the Spring 2 1/2 miles from Martinsburg. We were waiting for reinforcements under Johnson [sic], from Winchester We came on from the Spring back to Bucklestown, alias Darksville, and here met Col Johnston and his force numbering I think about 12,000 men. We camped in the same place we did before. Col Johnston's camp is on the end of town towards Winchester his forces have now moved above us next to Martinsburg, in the fields and have divided up into different Companies in different fields, and have taken their positions, and I suppose will camp there the night. We understand that the Yankees are in Martinsburg, there are about 10,000 of them. We took every thing we could carry easily out of our knapsacks, they were talking of burning them, but L. M. Booker [45] is going to take charge of them, and send them to Winchester. Capt. Middleton [46] Came here today.


July 4th Thursday

We stayed here again last night, We are now drawn up in line we don't know which way we are going, thogh I suppose towards Martinsburg. 2 O'clock we have not moved yet, still here. We drew rations this morning for 3 days. and are now cooking 1 days. 6 1/2 o'clock we had battallion drill and Dress parade this evening, we will stay here tonight again.


July 6th Saturday

We had a little rain about 7 o'clock this morning, still cloudy. 5 o'clock our Picquet were driven in this morning. We are now drawn up in line of battle here Pendleton's battery on our left, we remained in line of battle for an hour or two, and finding that the Yankess were not coming, we retired from the field, and went to cooking supper. Col. Johnston reviewed us whilst in line of battle.


July 5th Friday

I made a slight mistake here. This ought to have come before the above. 6 o'clock got up this morning at 3 o'clock. and got breakfast. and packed our blankets. and put them in the wagon, and sent it off towards Winchester 8. o'clock. 2 more prisoners were brought in just now. 9 o'clock 3 more were brought in. they have all been sent to Winchester.


July 7th Sunday

9. o'clock, we are now drawn up and I think we are going to Winchester, though it is hard to tell. It is very warm this morning. ll o'clock. we are now at Bunkers Hill resting and wattering. 6 o'clock were are now quartered for the night, in the woods, 5 miles from Wincester, we are all very tired and very much fatigued. We left behind us beautiful fields of wheat, already cut and shocked which I suppose will all be destroyed by the enemy. As we passed along to day Sunday. the people were not in their harvest fields cutting wheat, every thing is left to the mercy of the enemy.


July 8th Monday

6 o'clock. Fine morning. I suppose we will go on to day. 10. o'clock we have moved our Camp about 1 1/4 miles towards Winchester in the woods. We have water to carry about 1/2 mile. 6 o'clock we have battallion drill this evening. We are camped about 100 yds from Harpers Ferry and Winchester R. R.


July 9th Tuesday

8 o'clock, It is a very warm morning and we have Company drill at 10, 3 o'clock John Edmondson brought us our baggage &c He went to Winchester and opened all our baggage, and brought us some of our things, all mixed up to gether half of the men got none of their things. Capt. Middleton came with them and brought us some of our tents, and we are putting them up. 5 o'clock It is raining very hard now, and we have to stay in our tents we have only 2. we will have hard times to night I expect. 9.o'clock we got orders whist retiring to our bed to pack up every thing but what we were sleeping on, and put them in the wagon. after that to draw rations and cook it that night for the next day.


July 10th Wednesday

7 o'clock. We will start in a few minutes I guess, We are going towards Winchester 12 o'clock. We are now near Winchester The Militia are throwing up breastworks here about 1/4 mile from town, and our cooks (McClure Campbell Mullen [47] and Charlton S.) went to cooking 4 o'clock we had a very hard rain this evening. I was very damp and cool last night.


July 11th Thursday

9 o'clock. It looks like rain again. Thought the sun came out beautifully this morning. The Rockbridge Artillery go a very large piece of cannon yesterday evening.


July 12th Friday

Fine day. The Richmond (Thomas) Artillery came here today. Messrs Deaver[48], Rollins[49], Caffrey[50], Lewis[51], and Charles Tanquary[52] are all here now.


July 13th Saturday

moved our tents on a line with the others 5. o'clock, We were this evening transfered to the 4th Regt Va. Vols.


July 14th Sunday

No battallion drill at 6 or Company drill at 10 We have been laying in our tents all day Mr. Laird of our Co returned today we had Dress parade this evening.


July 15th Sunday

5. o'clock we were reviewed by Gen Jackson[53] today. after that, had drill and Dress parade 8 o'clock. (night). we were ordered out went to Headquarters, in the yard around the house. halted stacked arms, we were then orded to lay down, and keep perfectly quiet, so as to surprise the enemy if they attacked the house. 2 or 3 men wer detailed to go after our blankets, some of the Regts were ordered to tear down some old houses near here. to get axes, cut down the brush and trees &c. We were in the yard about an hour, were then ordered to go to our quarters, which we did without being distured any more.


July 16th Tuesday

Cloudy, I think it will rain shortly. We understand that the Yankees are coming on, they drove our Cavalry in, they are now at Darksville.


July 17th Wednesday

No drill this evening. Dress parade pleasant day, warm.


July 18th Thursday

ordered to pack up and be in readiness to move. 11 o'clock not moved yet. 3 o'clock we are now on our way to Manassas Junction. 9. o'clock (night) we have to cross the Shenandoah river, we have to wade, the sick were put across in boats. The Artillery men rode across on their Caissons and Limber boxes. We then crossed the Blue Ridge, and got to a little town (Paris) at the foot of the mountain about 1.o'clock.


July 19th Friday

We took up line of march again this morning at 4. o'clock, giving us only about 2 hours rest we came on to Pidmont [sic] Station[54]. got here about 6.o'clock. we remained here until about 2 o'clock when we took the cars for the Junction. When we had gotten about 2 miles from Winchester, a general order was read "That Gen Patterson[55], was marching by way of Harper's Ferry, and was going on to Manassas Junction. and that they were right there now and that we were going to reinforce Beauregard[56]. It took us about 6 hours to cross the Shenandoah river. It is a forced march and we have to get there as soon as possible. we got to the Junction about 4. o'clock this evening. we will remain here at the Junction to night I guess.


July 20th Friday

We moved down about 4 miles towards Centreville to camp this morning. 2 o'clock we were drawn up in line of battle in a corn field near here. We can easily see the Camps of the Enemy across the hills.


July 21st Sunday

5 O'clock A.M. we can hear the cannon firing from the hills in front, and a little below us, The Yankees are endeavoring to draw un in that direction. The Junction is strongly fortifiyed, with breastworks and entrenchments around in every possible direction. 8 o'clock they are now fighting in a hurry above here about 2 miles. we are moving briskly in that direction.. The enemy still Cannonading below.. Actium is our Countersight and and Sumpter [sic] our Watchword. our Regt the 4th was ordered to different places at 1 o'clock PM we was ordered on the field our Regt and the 27th was drawen up behind 8 peaces of Artilery[57] and was ordered to lay low we lay there for 3 1/2 hours had several men killed there. then we was ordered to rais and fire and charge bayonetts. There was an Awfull fire kept up The yankees had flanked round on our left had planted six peaces of Artilery & had A cross fire on us when we we charged the yankees fell back and we captured their artilery The ground was covered with dead & wounded George Chapin [58] and myself was togather when Miller[59] was wounded I was struck with A peace of shell and was helped of the field by John Donald [60] & John Middleton When we got to the fence in the rear it was Capt. Letcher [61] who got Mr John Laird.s horse for me to ride to the camp A distance of 3 miles aide camp [aide-de-camp] Marchell [62] came to camp with Me General Jackson came in at dark Mr Right [63] of our Company got him something to eat and gave him some of our Boys blanketts to sleep on The company did not all get to camp tonight Leiut Paxton came in None of our officers was hurt all come up safe We lost in the R[ockbridge] Rifles. Fred Davidson[64] and Asbery McClurer, Wounded, Bourger[65] Neff[66] Rollins Moody[67] Press Davidson[68] Miller. Northern[69]. Parks[70]. Rahle [Reilly]. Wallace Ruff [71]. In the Artillery (Rockbridge) None killed, wounded, Jack Jordan[72], Brockenbrough[73], and Singleton[74]


July 22nd Monday

It is now raining very hard, and has been all night. the wounded on the battle field must have suffered greatly last night. It is a very muddy and disagreeable day. A great many more forces came to the Junction today I went to the battle feild to help bury the dead the Awfulls scene I evir witnessed In my life hundreds of dead & wounded on the feild yet the yankees sent in a flag of truce and got some of thier wounded.


July 23rd Tuesday

The sun came out beautifully to day It is very pleasant today. The Artillery brought in the Captured Cannon &c today.


July 24th Wednesday

Nothing of importance going on today.


July 25th Thursday

Fine morning very pleasant.


July 26th Friday

All has bin quiet to day.


July 27th Saturday

Cloudy today I think we will have rain shortly. 4 o'clock. we were ordered to pack up &c. 5 o'clock. we have moved our brigade Camp. about 1/2 mile towards the battle field. near an old house. we have gotten our tents again McCampbell came back to our Co. again from being detailed with the Artillery.


July 28th Sunday

Foggy this morning. This day was appointed by the Confederate Congress as a general Thanksgiving day. No duty to day except guard duty, lO.o'clock the sun came out beautifully this morning. 4 o clock it is very cloudy now and thundering very hard we will have a shower shortly. 6 o'clock we had a great storm. It thundered and lightened in a hurry. We kept dry though in our tents, we had dinner and supper together today.


July 29th Monday

Drill at 7.A.M. It is raining a little Co. drill at 10 o'clock. We had a considerable shower about 8 this evening.


July 30th Tuesday

None of us got breakfast in time to drill this morning. We drilled at 10 It is very warm to day. 2 Rifledcannon and 2 Caisons passed here just now for the Rockbridge Artillery.


July 31st Wednesday

Fine morning. I think it will be very warm to day. we had no breakfast at our Company. This morning Some of them eat this morning's bread last night, We were put into Messes this evening.


August 1st Thursday

It is raining very hard and has been all morning. It looks like it would rain all day. We will have no duty to attend to today 3 o'clock we are ordered to cook every thing and be ready to march at 5 o'clock in the morning. Turpin[75] came here today, and he intends, going home tomorrow to stay.


August 2nd Friday

Got up early this morning, packed blankets &C. struck tents and got ready to move. We came on to Centreville and camped about 1 mile from the town towards Fairfax C.H. (Camp Harman) This the camp in which the Yankees camped before the battle of the 21st July, Their old brush tents and still here. we have very good water here though a great distance to carry it.


Aug. 3rd Saturday

Fine morning. Lieut Paxton came back from Lexington last night he brought 3 new recruits with him, and Seal[76]. Adams[77]. Champ[78]. James Smith[79]. Radford[80]We had Dress perade at 5 o'clock.


Aug. 4th Sunday

This will be a warm day I think Had Dress perade at 5. It was read out that the Rockbridge Rifle Co. was transferred to the 27th Regt Our Company didn't go to Dress perade. This is great dissatisfaction in the Co. [over the transfer].


Aug. 5th Monday

A fine. though very warm day. We have struck our tents, and packed our baggage. We are going to move over to the 27th Regt. 11. O'clock we have moved over and have pitched our tents, and are now clearing away the brush &c and burning it.


Aug 6th Tuesday

Fine morning, had drill this morning Capt Letcher is now acting Colonel of 27th He does capitally.


Aug. 7th Wednesday

Warm day. had drills as usual today. Nothing of importance going on today.


8th Thursday

Warm day. Had drills at 7 and 10 this morning. Lieut Paxton is on special duty at Headquarters.


Aug. 9th Friday

It is a cloudy morning. It looks like rain, They are paying off the 5th Regt today. At battallion drill they make two Co"s of ours. We are ordered to be in readiness to move without baggage At 10. o'clock. Prince Louis Napoleion passed here yesterday He is now at Centreville We are going to Centreville to pass review before him. We went to town and passed the review, It was a great Military display certain. We had a great thunderstorm this eve". there was no 5 o'clock drill


Aug. 10th Saturday

Fine morning. It was very foggy this morn but the sun came out and it is now very warm. We received our pay this morning, we got $42.00. It is clouding up again. I think we will have more rain. We had no drill this eve. but Dress perade.


Aug. 11th Sunday

The sun came out beautifully this morning. but now (7 o'clock) it is getting cloudy. We had a great shower last night it drove several of our boys out of their tents


Aug. 12th Monday

This is a damp morning, still cloudy Lieut Edmondson [81] (now acting Capt) got 2 more tents for some of our men this morning. Nothing going on to day


Aug. 13th Tuesday

we had a considerable rain this morning about 7 o'clock. It is still cloudy, though the sun comes out occasionally. It is windy and cool this evening. Chas Rollins came back last night. We drew rations of Potatoes today.


Aug 14th Wednesday

It is cloudy and cold this morning Loker [82] came here today, he looks very well. We heard cannonading towards Leesburg, and Fairfax C. H. this morning Jim Holley [83] is talking of going home tomorrow


Aug 15th Thursday

Fine morning. Jim Holley hasn't gone yet. 9 o'clock Jim has now gone. Had drills this morning. 11 o'clock we hear cannonading in the same direction as before. Cloudy now.


Aug 16th Friday

Pleasant day. S. McCampbell went to the Junction to day. It commenced raining about 12 o'clock today and has kept up all evening it is very disagreeable.


Aug 17th Saturday

Still cloudy and windy. Mr. Thomas Deaver, got a discharge today from the Gov. No drill today too rainy.


Aug 18th Sunday

we have now been in service 4 months. It is still damp and cloudy. There was no drill at 6. this morn. still cloudy and very disagreeable. No drills this eve Nothing going on to day, unusual


Aug. 19th Monday

We had a very hard rain last night. We have no drills this bad weather. It is very muddy. and disagreeable weather, too muddy for drilling purposes &


Aug. 20th Tuesday

It is still cloudy and damp yet we will have more rain yet. 6 o'clock (in the evening). it has now cleared off beautifully. 8. o'clock this is a beautiful moonlight night.


Aug 21st Wednesday

This is a fine beautiful morning perfectly clear. We didn't have any drill before. breakfast. I suppose it was on account of being too muddy. We had drill at 10. o'clock. The Staunton Band [84] is here now. These are beautiful moonlight night now


Aug 22nd Thursday

we had a little rain this morining still windy and cloudy. Wallace Ruff came back last night The sun comes out occasionally but goes back again. Our Quartermaster [Sgt. Henry T.] (Campbell) had to draw Crackers, we also drew potatoes again


Aug 23rd Friday

We got orders last night about 9 o'clock. to fall in with guns and accoutrements. we did so. our guns were inspected, and the No. of Cartridges taken. it then commenced to rain, and we were ordered to disperse, &c. We got orders, to day to put our guns in order & c. We got orders to fall in, and leave every thing but our Canteens Haversack &c. behind. the sick were left to cook. and sent it on. Our Brigade then formed, and marched to Fairfax C. H. We got here about 7. We went a little yon side of the town We were halted we were then ordered to march back, All the force about C. H. has moved farther down towards Alexandria. They had a little skirmish below there, they drove the Yankees back a piece. When we got back Jim Holley had come with boxes Ac for our Co.


Aug 24th Saturday

This is a fine clear morning, though windy and cool. Jim Holley brought a great many boxes with him. One for me also We had a fine time last night eating &c.


Aug. 25th Sunday

Fine day. We are ordered out again today. We formed, marched down about 2 miles towards Fairfax C. H. about face and marched back again


Aug. 26th Monday

Fine morning. We had Co drill at 10. o'clock. and battallion drill at 5 It was read out at Dress perade that Lieut Edmondson was appointed Adjutant of 27th Regt. and that there was to be a regular price paid for things brought there by hucksters for sale. It was also read out that we should have Reveille at 5. A.M. breakfast at 7. sick call at [unclear] o'clock. We have 4 drills a day.


Aug. 27th Tuesday

Cloudy today. We had a little mist or rain several times today. We drilled 3 times today. We had no battallion drill on account of rain.


Aug 28th Wednesday

we were ordered this morning at 5 to pack up, get breakfast and be ready to march as soon as possible. Cloudy morning. 9 o'clock are now about 1/2 mile from C.H. resting and waiting for orders We heard that the Picquets had a little skirmish with the Yankees yesterday, below C.H. Killed 4 Yankees and took 8 prisoners. Our men drove them from a hill there. (Nason's) and took possession of it. Washington City, and Alexandria can be seen from it after resting and waiting here near CH for about 2 hours. We were ordered to about face and return to our camp again. It has been raining almost the whole day.


Aug. 29th Thursday

Still raining, and I think will continue all day. We have orders to draw and cook 1 days rations and have our Canteens filled with water. 1 o clock we have not yet gotten any further orders. 3 o'clock it has now stoped raining and cleared off a little. 7 o'clock no orders yet.


Aug. 30th Friday

Fine morning, the sun came out beautifully. We got orders to clean up our quarters for Inspection. We had no dress perade to day


Aug. 31st Saturday

A clear and beautifuly morning we were ordered this morning to pack every thing portable up put on our knapsacks Ac. we were then formed, marched out in the field for Inspection and Muster roll, call, we then went to our quarters, and after dinner, got orders to pack every thing up, and strike tents. We then moved out of the woods into the field, pitched tents &c. we are now fixed up again


Sept 1st Sunday

Fine morning, though a little cloudy and cool Ordered to fall in with knapsacks, guns &c for inspection. We have had no drills yet, we had dress perade.Jim Holley goes home again tomorrow


Sept 2nd Monday

Fine morning. Jim hasn't gone, 12 o'clock he will go to the Junction this eve We had battalion drill at 8. Co. drill from 11. to 12. It is very warm to day. The Officers are all making off their pay rolls.


Sept 3rd Tuesday

Pleasant morning very warm to day. Our Company got permission from Capt Letcher to go to the Creek and take a bath &c. We didn't have any drill until 5 3 o'clock. Lynch, [85] who left us at Winchester, came here today.


Sept 4th Wednesday

It rained a little, though very little this morning, early. But the sun came out and it is now very pleasant. I am beginning to think that we will have some creapers in camp shortly. We had no drill at 2 battallion drill and dress perade at 5. We have Tatoo at 8 1/2 o'clock. and Taps at 9. o'c. The drum is beating Tatoo now.


Sept. 5th Thursday

We had a considerable shower last night. about 2 o'clock. 7 o'clock It is very cool, cloudy, and windy. I think we will have more rain to day. 8 o'clock we were ordered to fall in for battalion drill, we marched out to the field, Maj Grigsby [86], then ordered us to break for our quarters, it was raining too hard 10. O'clock, no drill still raining, very muddy and disagreeable.


Sept. 6th Friday

Very foggy this morning. I think it will clear off today. we had our usual drills. Col Massie [87] has gotten back. he was at our quarters this eve Northern has also gotten back. also


Sept. 7th Saturday

Very foggy this morning. we were ordered to strike tents, and let our baggage &c dry and air. At 10 o'clock Lieut Lewis marched us down to the spring and back. that was all the drilling we had then. We have now to clean our guns for inspection tomorrow.


Sept. 8th Sunday

Fine morning though cool and windy. Head inspection this morning. Mrs Gen Jackson [88] came here today. Bishop Johns [89] preached at Headquarters this eve". Had dress perade as usual


Sept. 9th Monday

We heard that Jim Holley had gotten to the Junction yesterday. Tuck Thomas [90] and Crawford [91] went up to help him down with the boxes Ac. The Sergt. is calling for us to fall in for battallion drill Jim came this eve with the boxes &c.


Sept. 10th Tuesday

We got permission to take another wash. A beautiful morning. we will have no duty to perform until 5.


Sept. 11th Wednesday

A very pleasant day, drills as usual to day. Gordan [92] & McCampbell got permission to go to Centreville to day. It commenced raining very hard about 3 o'clock this evening. It rained as hard as I ever saw it.


Sept. 12th Thursday

It was too muddy for drill at 8. we had the other drills though. It is a very fine day overhead. Nothing unusual going on today.


Sept. 13th Friday

It is very warm to day. We went out on battallion drill, and Just made a "right wheel by Companies" and then a left in to line wheel. Capt Letcher then gave us orders to appear on perade at 10 1/2, for review. we were then marched to our respective camps. Genls Johnston. and Jackson reviewed us we were out about 1% hours we all had a very pleasant time last night. It was a beautiful moonlight night


Sept. 14th Saturday

A beautiful day, warm, and, pleasant..We got orders just now to strike tents and let our blankets &c, air and dry. We had no drills to day. Capt Letcher went up to the Junction to day. This is a beautiful moonlight night. clear. and mellow like.


Sept. 15th Sunday

Very warm and pleasant morning, We had review as usual at 8. o'clock Dress perade at 6 1/2 o'clock. We got orders to pack every thing up &c. and be ready to move by 8 o'clock in morning We are going towards Fairfax C.H. We are going to move our Camp there. Mr Norgrove [93] came here this evening


Sept. 16th Monday

It is a little cool and cloudy, though a capital day for travelling we are fixing up our things now and getting ready to march. At 8 we all fell in and moved off as wer came on, we heard tremondous cannonading in direction of C.H. we came on within 2 miles of C.H. and turned in to the right about a mile. we are here halted to camp we are about 1 mile from CH. and not far from Fairfax Station. The Station is now our Post Office. We are camped here on a high hill. a very bad place for water. Worse than Camp "Harman". Jim Holley is talking of going home again. he is talking of not coming back again.


Sept. 17th Tuesday

Very foggy this morning. Jim Holly started home this morning. We had a tremendous Thunderstorm this evening about 4 o'clock. The sun came out afterwards beautifully. The rain got in our tents and was about to wash us away.


Sept. 18th Wednesday

Very foggy.this morning. we all went out and cleared off a piece of ground here in the woods. we had dress perade this evening (not uncommon.)


Sept. l9th Thursday

It is a little cloudy this morning. There was Company drill from 11 to 12. We had drill also from 3. to 5. and dress perade. Nothing going on to day uncommon


Sept. 20th Friday

Little foggy. We are getting breakfast now. we had drill from 10 to 11. and it was almost intolerable warm. we had as usual drill from 2. to 3


Sept. 21st Saturday

Pleasant day. We had battalion drill at 9 o'clock this morning. we will have no other drills today we have to police our quarters now. We have some great game of Quoits here. Capt Letcher and Lieut Lewis, take an active part in it. 6 o'clock. It is now raining very hard.


Sept. 22nd Sunday

Very windy, and cloudy today. The wind came near blowing our tents, we didn't have review this morning 4 o'clock. We now hear great Canonading. below the C.H. One of our Picquet was killed down below the C. H.. He was buried this evening. Sergt Boude [94] has just called for us to fall in for dress perade


Sept. 23rd Monday

Pleasant day drills as usual today. We had a little disturbance last night over at the Wheeling Company [95]. Kothing worth mentioning transpired today.


Sept. 24th Tuesday

One of the Lieuts in the Alaghaney Co. [96] who was taken prisoner at Manassas fight of 21st July, escaped from Washington. and got here safe last night. He tells wonderful stories of his narrow escapes &c. It is a little cloudy and cool today. We had our usual drill today. The 4th Reg came back off Piquet this evening


Sept. 25th Wednesday

Fine day. It was very cool last night. Loker came to camp again from Hospital., We will have go down on Picquet tomorrow I expect, down towards Mason's and Kunson's Hills. Yes we have to go to morrow.


Sept. 26th Thursday

We are now making preperations to start on Picquet. We came on through Fairfax C.H. and are now resting and watering at a Pump about 4 miles from C.H. Capt Letcher is in command so far. It is very warm travelling today. We started off this morning in great glee as usual. 2 o'clock we are now on Mason's Hill, We Can plainly see the Theological seminary near Alexandria. The river is in plain view. We can see 3 schooners floating beautifully on the waters oh! how beautiful is the view I cannot describe it. Magnificent, Picturesque. grand We can see for miles, away across the blue waters of the Potomac, into the land of the Yankee The waters lay as placid as eve. We can see the flags flying in the Camps of the enemy. We can see their breastworks. and entrenchments. &c. We can see the smoke issuing from the Yankee Camps. As the scene is too magnificent for me to describe. Ill pass on, we soon got orders to go to Munson's Hill When we had gotten here, Were were again ordered to return to Mason's Hill. Which we did. We got there about 6 o'clock in the evening. We were then put on Picquet.


Sept. 27th Friday

It commenced to rain last night about 8 o'clock. and has been raining ever since, It is now day break. We can hear the Yankee drums beating Reveille. We can occasionally hear the repeat of agun. The Picquet firing at one another. The Yankees drums have been beating all morning. We can plainly see the Yankees. on guard. They wave a white hankercheif at us. They have white flags waving. We can see them moving about in every direction. It is raining now very hard We have to keep under shelter the best way we can. we are all waiting for breakfast now, The Yankees keep waveing their flags, for us to meet them half way, to have a talk &c. Laird and McCluer went and met 2 or 3 of them. One of them said he had a brother in one of the Va Regts his name was Butt. When we were releived we went to our quarters on the hill It did rain terribly, and the wind blew awfully, we had to cook in all the rain and wind. 10't o'clock (night) we were ordered to get ready to get a way from there as quiet as possible, the wind blew. It was a perfect hericane. Cold ("good gracious", we marched off. and about 12 o'clock. (at night) got to Anadale [Annandale]. (a little village about a miles west of the Hill.) We here made some fires. There was the greatest excitement, I ever saw. the enemy was advancing it was thought, Munson's Hill was also evacuated great excitement prevails. All our Picquet hadn't gotten in yet The Wheeling Co. was left behind. It was thought they were taken prisoners, We remained here for orders &c until 3 o'clock. the following morning.


Sept. 28th Saturday

We (Our Company) got orders this morning about 3. o'clock, to go back to Mason's Hill, and see about the Wheeling Company and if they were taken prisoners to rescue them at the risk or cost of our lives. We went in advance of an other Co. We had also a battery behind us. Which Col Preston [97] said should protect us. We all moved back. every person we met said the Yankees were at the Hill. and were advancing. We moved on, determined to see them out, if we died in the attempt. We sliped along a little piece and then would halt awhile and listen. Then move forward again a piece and so. on. till we got to the Hill, without seeing or hearing any thing of our men (Wheeling) So we concluded we would go down, where they were posted, the Moon was shining beautifully, and reflected upon our bayenets &c. We sliped along cautiously We at last got to the post. "Merabile dictu." They were all there on their posts, and knew nothing of us leaving the Hill &c. We got them and came on back. much rejoiced. It seems our Sergt Major, was afraid to go to their posts and releive them after the Regts left the Hill. The forces in this part of the Country are all falling back. towards the C.H. We, all. came on apiece towards the C.H. and halted about 2 miles from Anandale There we went into a field and got breakfast &c. we will remain here all day I guess. We hear the Yankees are at Munson's and Mason's Hills.


Sept. 29th Sunday

We stayed here last night. near Anadale. It is difficult to get any thing to eat here. Captain White's Cavalry Co. [98] passed here just now going to Anadale. The Yankees havn't gotten there yet. One of our men was shot last night. We hear wonderful stories of the Yankees advancing &c we were put on Picquet, this evening We expect the Yankees to make their appearance every minute.


Sept. 30th Monday

We were releived off Picquet, this morning by the Monroe Guards [99]. The Yankees are still advancing slowly. 3 o'clock. they have a balloon [100] up now trying to find our position. We can see the balloon very plainly. It is about Falls Church we think. It looks beautiful. We can see the basket with two men in it. It stands in one place. It has again gone down. Jim Holly came back Sunday and brought some things for us


Oct. 1st Tuesday

Fine morning. thought it was very cool last night. The balloon made its appearance again this morning, in the same place. We are still here near Anadale and about 4 miles from Fairfax C.H. It is time we were releived. We can see the blackest kind of smoke rising towards Mason's ... [unclear]tunson's Hills. We are all looking at it now. The Yankees are burning houses, and every thing as they come. They are now about 1 mile from Anandale. It has been very warm all morning. It is clouding up now 12 o'clock) We have nothing to eat here but corn and Potatoes. 5 o'clock. We moved down under the hill, to conceal ourselves. The grass is very high here. We have hard time cooking here


Oct. 2nd Wednesday

Very very foggy this morning. We are all getting breakfast now, Press. Davis [President Jefferson Davis] is at the CH., and has been for some time. I hope we will be releived today, so we can go back to our camp near C.H. 8 o'clock. it has been raining almost the whole morning Major Grigsby, gave us orders this morning to get dinner, and be ready to move. I think our Releif has come and we are going to camp at last 12 o'clock. not raining but still cloudy There is some talk of us going to Western Virginia. but I suppose it's all a hoax. [101] We have great times here roasting corn. Thought it is getting most too hard. We will start shortly for our Camp.


Oct. 3rd Thursday

Foggy again this morning. We started yesterday about 5 o'clock (eve) and got here about 6 o'clock. We came in a hurry. It has [been] very warm all day. we have fixed up again in our camp.


Oct. 4th Friday

Fine morning. pleasant. John Donald and Jerry Rilley got their discharges to go home. they started this evening Capt Letcher is promoted to Lieut Col in some Regt. Our Co. wants to go with him. we have up a paper to the affect, and all have signed it. The Capt is going to Richmond shortly. We will have to elect a Capt now.


Oct. 5th Saturday

Pleasant day. we have no flour this morning, have to draw corn meal Laird was sent to Greenbrier County to see about some deserters. 8 o'clock we received orders to pack up every thing except what we realy need put them together by the time the wagon comes around. They are going to send them to the Junction. The wagon was packed and sent off to the Station. Wright & Northern were the guard. 5 o'clock The Sergt called to us to fall in, that Capt Letcher was going to tell us goodbye. Which we did, the Capt commenced at the head of the Ranks, and shook hands with all of us. He cried like a child. He is going to Richmond first I believe


Oct. 6th Sunday

We understand that about 30,000 of the enemy crossed the river at the mouth of Aquitink [Accotink] Creek. night before last, They are having a bread oven built at the Station, Mr Waltz [102] is going to bake for our brigade, We had inspection at 9 this morning. Sheltmans [103] gun took the premium. thought it was hard to decide between his and McCouns [McCown's]. It is a little windy to day. The 4th Regt started again on Picquet today There was peaching [preaching] at Headquarter's in a barn this evening.


Oct. 7th Monday

Cloudy this morning, I think we will have some rain shortly. There was inspection this morning, Drill at 2. P.M. after drill, had an election, as follows.

J. K. Edmondson - Cap't
P. C. Boude ---- 2nd Lieut
G. W. Chapin ---- 1st Sergt
A. W. Varner ---- 2n
McCampbell ------ 3rd
Campbell ------- 4th
Gordan -------- 1st Corp
Mullen -------- 2nd
Davis --------- 3rd
Rollins -------- 4th

We had a great shower this evening, It will be very disagreeable to night.


Oct 8th Tuesday

We had a tremondous storm last night. The guard was releived last night. Cloudy, and cool to day, I will be cold tonight


Oct 9th Wednesday

It was very cold last night, and is still so this morning. The result of our Election was read out on dress perade this evening, 2 o'clock still cloudy. and cool. Nothing of importance transpired.


October" 10th Thursday

Cool today. Had battallion drill at 9 o'clock. 2. o'clock our Company and the Monroe Guards joined together and we had a battallion drill, single ranks formed into Companies we had a capital drill certain, 4 o'clock there is a very heavy mist or rain falling now. Tuck. Thomas is going to Harpers Ferry. to see about some clothes. which our Company left there.


Oct. 11th Friday

Pleasant morning. though a little foggy Drill as usual at 9. It is a ldttle windy now. The whole brigade is out in the field now they are passing in review, or something. Gen Beauregard Johnston and an English Gen. are all over in the field reviewing


Oct. 12th Saturday

It commenced to rain last night about 10 o'clock. and rained all night very hard, We all got pretty wet. It was also very windy. The sun came out this morning. though it was very cold It is reported. that tomorrow is the appointedKfor a great battle here They got a barrel of whiskey today for us soldiers. I suppose they will commence giving it out in the morning.


Oct. 13th Sunday

It is windy and cool. Campbell gave us our gigger this morning. Last night was a beautiful night. we had review at 9. Dr Pendleton preaches over at a barn near Headquarters at 4 o'clock. It was a very pleasant evening not withstanding the wind. We all feel lazy today. Had dress perade as ususal.


Oct. 14th Monday

Fine pleasant morningw we had battallion drill as usual, We drill at Pendleton's Battery this evening at 2 o'clock. We went over went through the drill, came back and went on battallion drill. We went through 2 or 3 movements, when Col Echols [104] received a dispatch. We were then ordered in. and ordered to pack up and be ready to move, (on Pisquet again I suppose) about 5 o'clock. the order was countermanded, the order was we didn't go till morning.


Oct. 15th Tuesday

we cooked our bread last night, we got up this morning about 3, o'clock. and packed up and got breakfast. We have just packed the wagon. We will start directly. this is a beautiful morning. We came on to the Toll gate. where we camped before and turned off to the right by the spring, we came on the road about 1 mile, from the main road, we releived the 5th Regt" 3 or 4 of the front Companies. went on Picquet, immediatly after we got there, As we wer3 6th Co. we didn't have to go first. We have Capital water here, and a creek running along by our camp. we have made brush huts, Our Mess has finished our hut. ("Cabin home"). We heard considerable firing down about Anandale this morning. McCampbell Hartigan. S.A. Gordan and myself concluded we would go over to the Turnip patch. We got some Turnips &c as as we came back. we stoped at a beautiful spring. there a while, and talked about things generally, Sandy and myself went up to the house near there and tryed to get some brandy. but it wouldn't go. We had a very pleasant time there at the Spring


Oct. 16th Wednesday

Got orders this morning. to draw off Picquet get breakfast as early as possible. and be ready to move back. We started and Came over to the "Braddock Road" came on about 3 or 4 miles. Col Echols here received a dispatch. to send back 4 companies, to Aquitinck Creek. (A creek where we came into the Braddock Road) Consequently. The Wheeling Co., our Co., Aleghany Co. and Greenbrier Co. [105] had to about face and come back. We came back to the Creek. There are breastworks all along the creek. it's well fortifyed, We (Our Co) was put behind these breastworks. some of the other Companies have gone further on Our guns are all loadened Maj Grigsby is in Command of us. We are concealing ourselves behind the breastworks, we are in the entrenchments. It is cloudy today, I think it well rain before night. All our blankets &c are back in the wagons All our Picquet have been drawn in all around about this part of the Country, Some of our men were sent back to camp near C H. to take down tents and move things generally.


Oct. 17th Tuesday

We got orders yesterday evening (after we had fixed for the night) to go back and Join the rest of the Command. it was Just getting dark. We came on to where we had left the Regt. but they had moved on about 1 mile. Supper was ready for us when we got there. We ate supper, and immediately moved on again to within 2 or 3 miles of Centreville. When we go orders to go back about 1 mile, to a small creek, we came on back, and, our Company and 1 or 2 others had to go on Picquet. It was very dark. and we were almost broken down. We were certainly tired. We were releived this morning at 12 We came to Camp at Creek. fixed up to start again on another tramp We are now packing the wagon now we understand that our troops are burning us all the public buildings about the Station [Fairfax Station]. and elsewhere. Most all of our forces have fallen back to Centreville. It is now rainings we started to go towards Centreville. met the 3rd Alabama Regt it releived us here. We got orders immediately to go over to the Turnpike (main road to C.H.). we were ordered to keep perfectly quiet. We started. and it commenced to rain very hard, we had and awful time., it was so dark we could almost cut it with an knife we came out in the main road about 2 1/2 miles below Centreville, and came on the road towards the C.H. about 1 mile we stoped on a hill here It rained on us all the time. after we got some large fires built, we didn't get much sleep, too wet and disagreeable We got plenty to eat though. disagreeable disagreeable.


Oct. 18th Friday

Still cloudy. We have got marching orders again. We marched to the left of the hill about 2 mile. here we were halted. We sat here till about 4 o'clock this evening. We then came to about face. Came back about 1 mile, halted in the woods. Col rode in a field near. and ordered the Capts of each Company to come too. When they came back. they ordered us all to stack arms, take of[f] accoutrements &c we then marched out in the field on the hill, and went to making a breastwork out of rails &c. when we came back we were ordered to go to cooking every thing we had, and then to pack up every thing, and be ready for action at any moment. to sleep in rear of our guns. 6 o'clock P.M. It has cleared off now.


Oct. l9th Saturday

Very foggy this morning. we were not disturbed last night. we have had nothing to do to day. we had a little rain about 2 this evening.


Oct. 20th Sunday

Windy to day. Our Company has orders to go on Picquet today, 10. o'clock. we are now on Picquet, in the Alexandria and Winchester Road Leesburg road &c. We hear heavy firing out to the right of us, The Countersign is = Inkerman, We have the same old signal. Halt any one, throw up the left arm, he whom you halt must then take off his hat or cap. and pass it down below his face. If he fails to do this "Fire". this is the day signal.) The night signal is the sentinel strikes his leg 2 or three times with his hand. the person whom he halts. has to cough 2 or 3 times or clear his throat, if he fails to do this. "Fire" at him. We were releived about 11. o'clock today. We came on to Centreville, we got here about 3 o'clock P.M. Joe Neff. Kahle [106]. and H. Smith [107] were here Bill Kahle gave us a treat this evening. Our forces are fortifying here in a hurry.


Oct. 21st Monday

Cloudy and a little windy. Our Messes were rearranged yesterday. The noncommissioned officers are heads of the different messes now. we had nothing but dress perade today


Oct. 22nd Tuesday

Raining this morning. very disagreeable We have a hard time cooking in the rain. It rained all day. we had no duty to day. except Retreat


Oct. 23rd Wednesday

Cold, very, this morning. the wind blows very hard. Had dress perade at 5 o'clock. Grisby is now elected Lieut Col. and Paxton is appointed Major of 27th Regt. (ours)K


Oct. 24th Thursday

Cold morning. Had an election for 2nd and 1st Lieuts. consequent of Paxtons promotion. Boude was Elected 1st Lieut Chapin 2nd Gillock [108] 4th Sergt in Campbell's place (resigned)Northern, Orderly [lst Sergeant]. Had Company drill at 3.P.M.


Oct. 25th Friday

This was a beautiful morning early. but now. 10 o'clock, it looks like snow. Chas. Cizer [109] came back yesterday from Hospital Dr Graham [110] (old man) was at our camp to day


Oct. 26th Saturday

The sun came out beautifully this morning but now (9 o'clock) it is very cloudy. looks very much like rain. Rev. Dr. White [111]. came to this camp to day. The Co. is out on battallion drill now. We have just got orders to strike tents to dry our baggade &c There are several Good Bands near us here, they play beautifully. Nothing new


Oct. 27th Sunday

Fine cool windy morning. Dr. White preached at our Col's tent at 10. after preaching . Gordan McCampbell and myself took a walk up the road a piece. got some persimmons &c when we got back Jim Holly had gotten back from Lex. with George Johnston [112]. Dr White preached at 4th Regt this evening.


Oct. 28th Monday

Awful cold to day. Drills as usual. Have to clean up quarters today. Nothing new today.


Oct. 29th Tuesday

We got orders to strike tents today to air the ground, dry cloths &c. Drills as usual nothing new.


Oct. 30th Wednesday

Gov. Letcher [113] came here today. It is very pleasant. though a little windy we had review to day. The Gov" brought some flags with him. which he is going to present to the Va Regts this evening [unclear] o'clock we had a grand presentation this eve. The Gov presented flags to all the Va Regts


  1. 1

    F. C. Tebbs, a Methodist Minister in Lexington.

  2. 2

    Francis McFarland, the minister at Bethel Presbyterian Church in Augusta County.

  3. 3

    Elisha Franklin Paxton (1823-5/3/63). A Rockbridge native and a graduate of Washington College, Yale and the University of Virginia Law School. He was a lawyer, farmer and President of the Bank of Rockbridge. He was the 1st Lieutenant of the company when they left Lexington. He was commended at Bull Run for gallantry on the field, in bearing the colors of a Georgia regiment, whose standard bearer had been shot down "...advanced before the regiment, waving his hat, was the first to plant our banner upon their battery." In August Paxton served as Aide de-camp to General "Stonewall" Jackson. In August, 1862 he was appoint Major and Quartermaster on Jackson's staff, although his duties involved those of the Assistant Adjutant General. With Jackson's urging he was promoted to Rrigadier General on 1 November, 1862 and placed in command of the "Stonewall Brigade." Paxton was killed at Chancellorsville on 3 May, 1863 at the head of the "Stonewall Brigade," leading a charge.

  4. 4

    Probably James E. McCormick (1819-1893), a farmer who resided near Fairfield.

  5. 5

    Andrew Wallace Varner (1831-l910). A Lexington native and a carpenter and cabinetmaker. He was elected 2nd Lieutenant of the Rifles in April, 1862. Varner was shot through the leg and lost an arm at Gettysburg on 7 July, 1863. Taken prisoner, he remained in Federal prisons until the end of the war, despite the loss of his arm. Varner returned to Lexington and worked as a coachmaker, undertaker and furniture manufacturer with his brother, Charles Van Buren Varner (1838-1907) who also served in the company.

  6. 6

    Joseph H. R. Marston (circa 1841- ) A native of Maryland, Marston was working as a clerk in a Lexington business when the war began. He was later-captured at Gettysburg. After 13 months in prison Marston took the oath of allegiance and was released in January, 1855. He listed his residence as Baltimore, Md.

  7. 7

    John William Middleton (1835-1907). Mildleton was born in Harrisonburg and was listed as a "Gentleman", residing in Lexington when he enlisted. He was wounded in the elbow and captured at Gettysburg and sat out the rest of the war in prison. Middleton returned to Rockbridge and farmed in the Kerr's Creek area. later in life he moved to Tennessee.

  8. 8

    Dr. Alfred J. Hamilton (1830-1865). He resided at Midway, on the border of Rockbridge and Augusta counties, as he is listed in both counties on the 1860 census. Hamilton served as a Surgeon in the Confederate army. He died soon after the war.

  9. 9

    Asbury C. McClure (1840-1861). A native of Fauquier County, he was a 21 year old carpenter when he enlisted. Killed at Bull Run 21 July, 1861. "fell in th first charge made by the Regiment, shot through the breast... ."

  10. 10

    William Piper Hartigan (1837-1902). A Lexington native and a cabinetmaker, Hartigan enlisted in the 1st Rockbridge Dragoons the same day the Rifles were enrolled. He was captured on the retreat from Gettysburg and spent most of the next two years in prison. Hartigan returned to Lexington, where he worked aB a mechanic and cabinetmaker. His brother, John Wesley Hartigan (1835-1863) was a member of the Rifles at this time. His other brothers James A. (1875-1863), Robert M. (1848-1927) and Walter Dougas Hartigan (1843-1895), later served in the company.

  11. 11


  12. 12

    Lieutenant John F. Stafford (1827-1867), was a Staunton merchant who had enlisted in the "Staunton Rifles", Company G, 5th Virginia Infantry.

  13. 13


  14. 14

    Daniel McGuire Reilly (1840-1916) An Irishman who was a jeweler and silversmith in Lesington. He survived the war and returned to his trade in Lexington until his death.

  15. 15

    John S. Edmondson (1842-1861). Another Lexington carpenter, he died of diptheria in Lexington on 29 August. 1861 age 19 years and 2 months.

  16. 16

    The 1st Rockbridge Dragoons, under Captain Mathew X. White, Jr., had been sworn in and departed Lexington the same day as the Rifles. This company had been organized as part of the militia at Fancy Hill in 1859. They became Company C. 1st Virginia Cavalry under J. E. B. Stuart.

  17. 17

    John B. Hanger (1836-1861) A farmer in Augusta County in 1860, he had apparently moved to Rockbridge. Hanger was wounded in the foot at Bull Run on 21 3uly, 1861. He died from hls wound and diptheria on 9 September, 1861.

  18. 18

    George Washington Bailey, Jr. (lS39-1901). A carpenter working in his native county of Rockbridge, Bailey served throughout the war, surrendering at Appomattox Court House on 9 April, 1865. He moved to Sherando in Augusta County after the war.

  19. 19


  20. 20

    George W. Effinger (1822-1892), a Harrisonburg merchant.

  21. 21


  22. 22


  23. 23

    Jacob H. Fonshill (1836- ). A 25 year old saddler when he enlisted in Lexington, he was ordered discharged by the Secretary of War on 15 December, 1861, presumably to resume his occupation.

  24. 24

    Before departing the company was presented a flag by the ladies of Harrisonburg. Robert H. Campbell described the banner as representing the "Confederate States, with a star for Virginia in the center."

  25. 25

    Alfred B. Tanquary (1823-1883). He was a tinner in Lexington and a native of Frederick County. Tanquary was discharged for disease of the heart in December, 1861. He served as a member of the Lexington Patrol and manufactured wool in Lexington during the war. After the war he turned to making tobacco and then was a merchant in Lexington.

  26. 26

    General Joseph E. Johnston (1807-1891) For some reason Hanger refers to him as "Colonel."

  27. 27

    Here Hanger failed to write in his diary for a considerable period and later brought it up to date about June 23rd. For some reason his spelling became much improved

  28. 28

    Captain William Nelson Pendleton of the 1st Rockbridge Artillery (1809-1883). A West Point graduate, he became a teacher and then an Episcopal minister after a brief military career. He was the pastor of Grace Episcopal Church in Lexington when the war began. Pendleton often preached to his company, and his sermons always drew crowds of soldiers from other units. He was promoted Colonel and Chief of Artillery under Joseph E. Johnston on 19 July, 1861, but commanded the Rockbridge Artillery at Bull Run. He was later promoted Brigadier General and commanded the artillery of the Army of Northern Virginia. Pendleton returned to Lexington after the war. He was often mistaken for Robert E. Lee.

  29. 29


  30. 30


  31. 31

    David Edward Laird (1832-18'30). A Rockbridge native and a graduate of Washington College, Laird was teaching in Atlanta, Georgia when the war began. He hurried home and enlisted on April 28, 1861. Laird transferred to the 1st Rockbridge Dragoons in 1862 because of leg problems. He farmed at Riverside after the war and taught school in Lexington and Fancy Hill until his death.

  32. 32

    Edward Nicholas Boogher (1831-1923). He moved from Frederick County, Maryland to Lexington in 1850 and was clerking in a local firm when the war began. He apparently only served a short time, as he is not listed on the muster rolls until 1862. In March, 1867, he was exempt because of his work in a foundry and again in 1864 as a manufacturer of iron utensils and detailed to make shells at Vesuvius. Boogher reenlisted or was conscripted back into the Rifles by October, 1864, as he was issued clothing in November and December, 1864. He returned to Lexington after the war and was a successful carpenter and builder.

  33. 33

    The West Augusta Guard was organized in Staunton on April 17, 1861, as Company L, 5th Virginia Infantry, under Captain James Hurley Waters (1828-1913). In November, 1861 the unit was converted to artillery. The West Augusta Guard continued to serve in the Virginia Militia and National Guard until World War II.

  34. 34

    Samuel John Nelson McCampbell (1837-1909). A Rockbridge native who had attended Washington College, McCampbell was a dentist in Lexington when the war began. He was wounded in the mouth and throat at Chancellorsville and captured in the Valley in 1864, and spent the last months of the war in prison. He returned to Lexington and resumed his career as a dentist.

  35. 35

    See footnote 9.

  36. 36

    Robert McDowell McCown (1843-1901). A Lexington native, McCown was working as a saddler when he enlisted. He transferred to the 1st Rockbridge Dragoons in 1862 and served as a courier at Stonewall Jackson's headquarters. After the war he continued as a saddler and harness maker in Collierstown.

  37. 37

    Lawrence McNamara (1843- ). He was an 18 year old laborer when he enlisted. He served faithfully until deserting to the enemy at Centreville on 1 September, 1862.

  38. 38

    Arthur David McClurer (1839-1862). A Rockbridge native who had attended Washington College, he was farming near Lexington when he enlisted. tIcClurer was appointed Color Sergeant on November 20, 1861, a post of both honor and danger. He was mortally wounded at Malvern Hill on July 1, 1862.

  39. 39

    John Merritt "Jack" Doyle (1845-1920). Although born in Carrolton, Green County, Illinois, he had resided in Virginia nearly all his life. He was a carpenter in Staunton when he enlisted. He was wounded in the neck and leg, and the first man in the 5th Virginia Infantry to be shot. He was again wounded in the leg at 2nd Manassas and detailed to gather conscipts and deserters in 1863. He later reenlisted in Company D, 62nd Virginia Infantry. He was working as a Clerk and Saleman in Greenville in 1920.

  40. 40

    Robert Lewis Doyle (1812-1864). An Augusta County native, Doyle had attended Washington College, and was a lawyer in Staunton. He raised the "Mountain Guard", Company C, 5th Virgina Infantry. He was not reelected in 1862 but was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 62nd Virginia Infantry in September, 1862. He resigned in November, 1863, because of failing health and to become Commonwealth's Attorney of Augusta County. He raised Company B, Harper's Augusta County Reserves in April, 1864. Doyle was wounded in the battle of Piedmont on June 5, 1864, while trying to rally his men. "His men placed him under a tree - shot and bayoneted after his capture." Father of John M. Doyle.

  41. 41

    The "Continental Morgan Guards," Company K, 5th Virginia Infantry, were raised in Frederick County by Captain John Avis (1818-1883).

  42. 42

    The "Continental Morgan Guards," Company K, 5th Virginia Infantry, were raised in Frederick County by Captain John Avis (1818-1883).

  43. 43

    Brigadier General Thomas Johnathan "Stonewall" Jackson (1824-1863). He had been promoted on June 17, 1861 but Hanger still referred to his as "Colonel". The battle of Hainesville was Jackson's first combat of the war.

  44. 44

    Lieutenant Colonel James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (1833-1864). He was commanding elements of the 1st Virginia Cavalry at this time. The "Valley Rangers," from Augusta County, under Captain William Patrick (1822-1862), with Stuart, captured most of a company from the 15th Pennslyvania Infantry.

  45. 45


  46. 46

    John C. Middleton (1810-1867). A blacksmith and the Mayor of Lexington in 1860. The "Captain" probably refers to a militia rank.

  47. 47

    Thomas Bradley Mullen (1839-1885). A native of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, Mullen had moved with his parents to Rockbridge County in 1847. Like his father, he was a foundry worker. Mullen was wounded at Mine Run and captured at Spotslyvania Court House and spent to rest of the war in Ft. Delaware. Returning to Lexington, he was a foundry and machine shop owner and operator until his death.

  48. 48

    Thomas Henry Deaver (1828-1906). He was shoemaker in Lexington who later enlisted in the company but was soon discharged by order of Governor Letcher to make shoes for the Confederacy. Deaver continued his occupation in Lexington after the war.

  49. 49

    Either Charles A. Rollins (1842- ) or his father, William H. Rollins (1814-1863), Charles A. Rollins was another Pennslyvanian who was a printer in Lexington. He served in the Rifles and was wounded at Bull Run and Mine Run and captured at Spotsylvania Court House. He resided in Florida after the war. William H. Rollings later enlisted in the "Liberty Hall Volunteers" and was captured at Gettysburg and died of disease at Fort Delaware.

  50. 50

    Thomas Caffrey (1823- ). He was a matress maker in Lexington during the war.

  51. 51

    Either William W. Lewis (1831-1890) or his father. William W. Lewis was native of Lexington and a merchant when the war began. He was appointed Adjutant of the 27th Virginia Infantry in 1862 until retiring for disability in 1864. He returned to Lexington after the war. Lewis later moved to West Virginia and then to Texas.

  52. 52

    Charles W. Tanquary (1846-1863). The younger brother Andrew B. Tanquary of the Rifles. He died of typhoid pneumonia before his 18th birthday.

  53. 53

    Jackson was promoted to Brigadier General on June 17, 1861.

  54. 54

    Piedmont Station on the Manassas Gap Railroad. Now Salem, Va.

  55. 55

    General Robert Patterson who had commanded the Union forces in the Valley and the troops Jackson and his men had engaged at Hainesville on July 2. 1861.

  56. 56

    General P. T. G. Beauregard who commanded the Confederate forces around Manassas Junction.

  57. 57

    Four of these guns belonged to the Rockbridge Artillery.

  58. 58

    George W. Chapin (1844-1863). He was a 16 year old clerk in Lexington when he enlisted. Despite his youth he was elected Sergeant and later Second Lieutenant in the Rifles. He declined reelection and enlisted as a Private in the Liberty Hall Volunteers. He was wounded at Chancellorsville but returned in time Mine Run, November 27, 1863.

  59. 59

    Adam W. Miller (1831- ). Miller,a carpenter by trade, enlisted in the company while they were in Harrisonburg. His wounds caused him to be discharged a few months later. He apparently reenlisted in the Rifles in 1864. He came to Rockbridge County some time after the war and farmed in the Denmark area. Miller entered to Old Soldier's Home in Richmond in December, 1898 but left after several weeks.

  60. 60

    John A. Donald (1839-1894). Donald was a shoemaker in Lexington when reenlisted. He was discharged in October because of the need for shoemakers. He reenlisted in the company in 1864 and was captured in Rockbridge County during Hunter's raid and spent the rest of the war in Camp Chase, Ohio. He continued his trade in the Natural Bridge District until his death.

  61. 61

    Captain Samuel Houston Letcher (1828-1868). Letcher was a Rockbridge native who had graduated was the Washington College Law School in 1850. He was a lawyer and newspaper editor in Lexington when the war began. Letcher was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and assigned to the 58th Virginia Infantry. He resigned in 1862. Letcher resumed his career as a newspaper editor until his death.

  62. 62

    James W. Matchett, Jr., (1840-1912). He was apparently a volunteer aide-de-camp on Jackson's staff. Matchett was exempt in Rockbridge County in March, 1862 for defective vision, which may explain why he is not listed as a Confederate soldier. He was a farmer in Rockbridge after the war.

  63. 63

    William G. Wright (1817-1904) One of the oldest members of the Rifles. Wright was born in Rockbridge County and a tailor by trade. He was discharged for overage after one year's service. Wright worked in the Clothing Department for the Confederate army in Richmond until the end of the war. He returned to Lexington and resumed his trade and later expanded his buslness to include selling sewing machines.

  64. 64

    Frederick Davidson (1836-1861). A Lexington native who had attended Washington College and the University of Virginia. His dying request was that he be buried on the battlefield at the Lewis house. His last words were "Tell my mother I died for a glorious cause." His remains were later removed to Stonewall Jackson cemetery.

  65. 65

    David Guthrie Bowyer (1837-1898). A native of Charlottesville, he had come to Lexington in the 1850's and was a painter. His skull was fractured, one leg was shattered and he had a wound in his right side. He was discharged from the hospital a few months later. He returned to Lexington and resumed his trade after the war.

  66. 66

    Joel L. Neff (1828-1898) Neff was working as a stonecutter in the county when the war began. His wounded hand kept him out of action for several months. He later enlisted in the cavalry, was captured during Hunter's raid and spent the last year of the war in Camp Chase, Ohio. After the war he returned to Rockbridge and resumed his trade. Neff moved to Jamestown, Ohio in 1888.

  67. 67

    John E. Moody (1828- ). A native of Chesterfield County and a coachmaker by trade, Moody had enlisted in Harpers Ferry. His shoulder wound caused him to be discharged in 1862.

  68. 68

    Preston A. Davidson (1842-1914). He was a student at Washington College when the war began. A native of Indianapolis, Indiana, he was the son of one of the Davidson family originally from Rockbridge County. The wound in his right shoulder caused anchylosis of the joint and he was discharged in 1862. Davidson farmed in Rockbridge for a number of years before returning to Indiana.

  69. 69

    Edward Y. Northern (1833-1894). Northern was a tailor in Lexington when he enlisted. His wounds must have been minor, as he returned to duty and was promoted to 1st Sergeant in October, 1861. He was elected 2nd Lieutenant in the Rifles in 1862 and served to the end of the war. He returned to Lexington after the war.

  70. 70

    Joshua Parks, Jr. (1836-1861). A Lexington native, Parks was a plasterer and mason before he enlisted. His wound was apparently minor as he returned to duty and was killed at Honeywood Mills Dam or Dam No. 5 in Morgan County on 19 December, 1861. Stonewall Jackson was attempting to destroy the dams on the upper Potomac river to prevent the water flowing into the vital Cheasapeake and Ohio Canal.

  71. 71

    Samuel Wallace Ruff (1843-1884). A native of Lexington, Ruff had no occupation on the 1860 census and gave none when he enlisted. His wound was apparently minor as he was back on duty in October. He served faithfully until after Gettysburg when he deserted to join the Page Cavalry. Following the war he farmed in the Natural Bridge area.

  72. 72

    John W. "Jack" Jordon, Jr. (1839-1871). A Rockbridge native, he was managing a hotel when he enlisted. His wound was minor, as he was present a month later. He was promoted rapidly up through the ranks to 2nd Lieutenant in May of 1863, reportedly because of his ability to manage horses in difficult situations. Jordan received a slight wound in the arm at Gettysburg, but never left the battery. He surrendered at Appomattox Court House. After the war he was involved in railroad construction.

  73. 73

    John Bowyer Brockenbrough (1836-1901). A native of Lexington, Bowyer had attended Washington College and graduated from the University of Virginia and the Washington College Law School. He was a lawyer in Lexington and one of the organizers of the Rockbridge Artillery. He received a slight wound in the foot. He resigned in August of 1861. In 1862 he was elected Captain of the Baltimore Artillery. Brockenbrough was wounded in the arm at Fredericksburg in December, 1862, while serving as a gunner, although he was on the staff of General Taliferro. Promoted to Najor of Artillery in 1863 but he retired in 1864. Brockenbrough was a lawyer in Lynchburg until 1886 when he was appointed special agent for the Department of the Interior by President Cleveland. He moved to Baltimore in 1900.

  74. 74

    William Francis Singleton of Kentucky. He was a student at the University of Virginia when the war began. His wound was in the arm but he was back on duty by August. Singleton was wounded and captured at Port Republic. Following his exchange in 1863 he joined Morgan's Kentucky cavalry.

  75. 75

    Richard C. "Sergeant" Turpin (1815-1880) A native of Henrico County, Turpin moved to Le:rington in 1856 and was employed as a coach painter. He was absent from the company as a hospital steward in Winchester. He was discharged in December for an old fracture of his left leg. Turpin served in the Lexington Patrol and as Captain in the Rockbridge Senior Reserves. He returned to his occupation after the war but later was a bartender in Lexington.

  76. 76

    Morgan Francis Seal (1829-1881). Seal served in the company only a month before being discharged and sent to Richmond to make harness for the Confederacy. He returned to Lexington after the war as a harness maker.

  77. 77

    Charles A. Adams (1830-1909) A native of Williamsburg, Adams came to Lexington in 1852 and was employed as a tailor. He was discharged in 1862 to be the tailor for the V. M. I. Adams was captured during Hunter's raid and sent to Camp Chase, Ohio. He returned to Lexington and served as the tailor for the V.M.I. for over 50 years.

  78. 78

    Andrew Jackson Champe (1818-1896) A Craig County native, Champe came to Lexington in 1852 as a bricklayer. He was discharged for rheumatism in 1862 and served in the Lexington Patrol and the Rockbridge Senior Reserves. He resumed his career as a brick mason and later manufactured brick in Lexington.

  79. 79

    James W. Smith (1825- ). Smith was a shoemaker by trade and reportedly deserted in 1862. However, he was exempt as a shoemaker in Lexington in 1864.

  80. 80

    Calvin Radford (1827- ). Radford was a coach maker in Lexington. He was soon discharged because of his skills and assigned to government work. He returned to Lexington after the war.

  81. 81

    James Kerr Edmondson (1832-1898). He was born near Buena Vista and attended Washington College. Edmondson was the Town Sergeant of Lexington from 1853-1860 and was Clerk of the City Court of Lexington in 1861. He enlisted as a private but was soon elected 2nd Lieutenant. In August he was appointed Adjutant of the 27th Virginia, but returned to the Rifles in October as their Captain. Edmondson rose to Lieutenant Colonel of the 27th in July of 1862 and was promoted Colonel in November of the same year. Edmondson was wounded severely at Chancellorsville in the breast and lost his left arm at the shoulder. He resigned later in the year and served as the Provost Marshal of Lexington until the end of the war. In addition to his military duties he served as the County Clerk from 1864-64 and for 4 years after the war. He served as treasurer of Washington College from 1865-1868. Edmondson graduated from Washington College in 1870 B. L. and as a lawyer was almost immediately appointed a Judge in the county. He also served as the Mayor of Lexington for 9 years and as a trustee for Washington College. Edmondson found time to serve in the Virginia legislature from 1870-1880.

  82. 82

    William H. Loker (1837- ). Loker spent most of his military career absent sick or absent without leave. He transferred to the 12th Virginia Cavalry in 1863 but soon deserted that unit.

  83. 83

    James Holly (1828- ) Holly was married in Rockbridge County in 1850 but does not appear on the 1860 census. He was traveling back and forth from Rockbridge County bringing boxes of food, mail and other items to the troops.

  84. 84

    The Staunton Mountain Sax Horn Band or Turner's Silver Cornet Band. Formed in 1855 with 14 members, the band performed at many civic, politican and military functions. They had played for the Rockbridge Rifles when they departed Staunton for Harrisonburg. The band, depleted by a number of its members serving in the 5th Virginia Infantry, was only visiting the troops at this time. On April 1, 1862 Stonewall Jackson authorized the 5th Virginia Infantry to have a band. 14 men, including 8 former members, made up the regimental band. The bandsmen were not without military duties, as they acted as stretcher bearers for the wounded and took casualties as a result. When Jackson's troops crossed the Potomac into Maryland in September, 1862, the band played "Maryland, My Maryland" as the men waded the river. In 1863 the bandsmen were officially designated the "Stonewall Brigade Band" and served to the end of the war. This organization still exists in the city of Staunton.

  85. 85

    Eugene Lynch (1835-1863). A shoemaker by trade, he spent much of his military career detailed to make shoes for the troops. He was found murdered in Richmond on July 12. 1863.

  86. 86

    Andrew Jackson Grigsby (1819-1895) A native of Rockbridge County, Grigsby had attended Washington College before serving in the Mexican War. He moved to Missouri for a short time, but was teaching school in the Lexington District of Rockbridge County in 1860. Grigsby was living in Giles County when the war began. He was appointed Major of the 27th Virginia in June, 1861, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in October and Colonel in May of 1862. Grigsby was wounded at Malvern Hill on July 1, 1862. He returned to duty and resigned, along with several other officers when Major Elijah F. Paxton was promoted to Brigadier over the other senior officers in the Stonewall Brigade. He served with the Kentucky troops briefly and in the Confederate House of Representatives from Kentucky as its Speaker 1863-64, and as Counsel in France 1864-65. He farmed in Albemarle County until his death.

  87. 87

    James Woods Massie (1826-1872) An Augusta County native, he had graduated from the V. M. I. in 1849 and the Washington College Law School in 1851. Massie was a lawyer in Lexington, represented to county in the Virginia legislature 1858-59 and Colonel in the militia. Hewas appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 51st Virginia Infantry in July, 1861. He apparently was serving with Stonewall Jackson at this time. He commanded the 51st Virginia in the battle of Ft Donelson, Tennessee but was not reelected in May, 1862 Massie returned to the V. M. I. as professor of mathematics until 1871.

  88. 88

    Mary Anna Morrison Jackson (1831-?)

  89. 89

    Bishop EO Johns

  90. 90

    James S. Thomas (1840-1863) A Bedford County native, he was working as a clerk in Lexington when he enlisted Thomas was wounded at Port Republic and Kearneysville. Promoted to Sergeant Major of the regiment, he was killed at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863.

  91. 91

    Henry Crawford (1829- ) Crawford was working as a carpenter in the Glenwood District of the county when he enlisted. He was wounded at 2nd fanassas and Fisher's Hill. Crawford returned to his trade in the Natural Bridge area after the war.

  92. 92

    Samuel A. Gordon (1839- ) Gordon was a clerk in Lexington before the war. He was captured near Spotsylvania Court House on May 20, 1864. He was released from the Elmira, New York prisoner of war camp on June 30, 1865. He apparently died on his way home, as he is listed as "dying in service" on all postwar rosters.

  93. 93

    Henry Norgrove (1814-1881) A native of Berkshire near Oxford, England, Norgrove immigrated to Richmond and moved to Charlottesville before coming to Lexington in 1837. He was a tailor and clothes merchant. One of his sons, Edward W. Norgrove (1843-1863) was serving in the Rifles. He was mortally wounded at Chancellorsville His other son William H. Norgrove (1840-1863) served as a Lieutenant in the Botetourt Artillery and died of wounds received at Port Gibson, Mississippi in May, 1863. Henry served in the Lexington Patrol during the war. He continued his tailoring career in Lexington until his death.

  94. 94

    John Clinton Boude (1833-1896) Boude, a Clarke County native and a cabinetmaker, moved to Rockbridge County in 1855. He was soon promoted 2nd Lieutenant and later 1st Lieutenant and Captain. Boude was wounded at 2nd Manassas and lost his left leg at Chancellorsville. He served as the Enrolling Officer in Lexington until the end of the war. Boude also served as Clerk of the County Court from 1864-1888. He graduated from Washington College in 1870 B. L. and practiced law in Lexington. Boude was the owner of the "Rockbridge Citizen" newspaper and served on the town council.

  95. 95

    The "Shriver Grays" were organized by Captain Daniel X Shriver from the best families of Wheeling. They secretly left Wheeling on the last boat not requiring military inspection. This company was never able to obtain many recruits or conscripts and dwindled away to a few survivors by the end of the war.

  96. 96

    There were three companies from Alleghany County in the regiment The "Alleghany Roughs" under Captain Thompson McAllister, the "Hiberians" under Captain Harry H. Robertson and the "Alleghany Rifles" led by Captain Lewis P. Holloway.

  97. 97

    Colonel John Thomas Lewis Preston (1811-1890) A Lexington native, Preston attended Washington College and the University of Virginia. He was one of the founders of the Virginia Military Institute and was an instructor there from 1839-1861. He led the Cadets to Richmond in April, 1861, where they were assigned as drillmasters for the new regiments flocking to the capital of the Confederacy. Preston was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 9th Virginia Infantry on 7 July, 1861. He as assigned to Jackson's staff officially as Assistant Adjutant General in October. Preston was ordered back to the V. M I. in December, 1861, where he served until 1882.

  98. 98

    Captain Mathew X. White Jr.'s 1st Rockbridge Dragoons, now Company C, 1st Virginia Cavalry.

  99. 99

    Company D. From Monroe County, now West Virginia, where they were organized in May, 1861.

  100. 100

    Insert corrected text.

  101. 101

    The rumor proved to be true. Jackson was assigned to command the Valley District and he managed to get the Stonewall Brlsade and the Rockbridge Artillery assigned to the Valley in November, 1861.

  102. 102

    William Frederick Walz (1835-1908) A native of Germany, Walz came to the United States at age 14. He was a baker in Lexington when the war began. He is listed as having deserted in December, 1862, however, he was probably discharged as a foreigner, since he served in the Lexington Patrol and was examined by the Conscript Officer in Lexington in February, 1864 He is listed as a baker and confectioneer in Lexington in 1872, but was a milliner and saloon owner by 1880.

  103. 103

    Mathew R. Sheltman (1835-1895) Sheltman was farming in the [unclear]the District of Rockbridge County when the war began. He served faithfully throughout the war and was paroled at Staunton in May, 1865 He returned to farming in the county after the war.

  104. 104

    Colonel John W. Echols (1833-1896) Echols was a native of Lynchburg and a graduate of Washington College. He attended the V. M. I. briefly and graduated from Harvard Law School. Echols was Gommonwealth's Attorney of Monroe County when the war started. He was promoted MaJor of the regiment in May and Colonel in October. Echols was wounded at Kernstown in March, 1862 and was promoted to Brigadier General a month later. He commanded a brigade in southwest Virginia and later at New Market and Cold Harbor. Promoted to Major General, he was placed in command of Western Virginia in March, 1865. He surrendered with Johnston's army in North Carolina. Following the war he was an attorney in Staunton and served in the Virginia legislature. After serving as president of the Valley Bank, he was elected president of the C & 0 Railroad and moved to Louisville. Kentucky. He died in Staunton and is buried there.

  105. 105

    Company F, the "Greenbrier Sharpshooters" under Captain Gabriel C. Smith.

  106. 106

    William Henry Harrison Kahle (1837-1863). A Lexington cabinetmaker, "Bill" Kahle had been wounded at Bull Run on July 21st. He was killed at Gettysburg on July 3, 1863.

  107. 107

    Henry D. Smith (1832- ). Smith was the butcher for the V. M. I. and was a new recruit for the Rifles. He surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9 1865.

  108. 108

    James William Gillock (1843-19l6) A Lexington native, Gillock rose quickly through the ranks to 1st Lieutenant in 1862. He was captured at Gettysburg and spent the rest of the war in various federal prisons Gillock returned to Lexington and served as the military storekeeper for the V. M. I. for 44 years.

  109. 109

    Charles W. Sizer (1840- ) Sizer was working as a mason before his enlistment. Wounded in the abdomen at Gettysburg, he was captured at Fairfield, Pennslyvania. Federal records show him as a deserter, who was sent to Ft. Delaware and took the oath and Joined the 3rd Maryland Cavalry, U. S. Confederate records show him hospitalized at Orange Court House from 19 September-20 October 1863, then no further record.

  110. 110

    Probably Dr. Alexander Graham from Rockbridge County, who later served in the Virginia Legislature.

  111. 111

    Dr. William S. White, pastor of the Lexington Presbyterian Church.

  112. 112

    Possibly refering to George W. Johnson of Company F, 27th Virginia Infantry.

  113. 113

    Governor John Letcher (1813-1884). A Lexington lawyer and Virginia's "War Governor."